I threw this page together to try to impart some professionalism into
everyday makeup application. I realise that I have missed out the Egyption, Phoenician,
Roman, Greek, Druid, Icini and many of the very early users of makeup , all of whom
provided input to make makeup what it is today. I thank these ancients, but for the sake
of further brevity, have begun my history in the Middle Ages. Forgive me guys!
Most of my notes are in point form, perhaps one day I'll get round to writing abook.
The History of Makeup
What's in a Makeup Kit?
Start Makeup Lesson
All about Bases
Skin Care and Aesthetics
Light and Makeup
Makeup for Colour Photography
Makeup for Black & White Photography and TV
Styles of Makeup
Oily Skin Analysis
The History of Makeup
Man has painted his face throughout recorded history using elaborate
designs or delicate touches. Primitive tribes used makeup as a form of camouflage. Early
tattooing was associated with puberty rites or magic. Makeup was also used as a mark of
status - chieftains different to others of tribe, Also in the eighteenth century
restoration period, certain shades of rouge were expensive and difficult to obtain and
considered therefore a status symbol. (Just like Chanel makeup :))
Very early in history, face painting came to be thought of as a method of beautification.
Also makeup has been used for aeons as an attempt to recover lost youth, concealing
wrinkles and sagging skin, both amongst male and female. At least one Persian king took
cosmetics to battle with him. Can you imagine Rommel with his Panzer Core compact?
Pressures against the use of make-up have been seen throughout history. In the time of the
puritans and even in the eighteenth century, the use of make- up could result in divorce,
with full support of the law. Hypocrisy resulted in restrictive make-up such as cheek
pinching or lip biting to gain colour. At periods of extremism, permissive make-up could
be seen in 1960's.
Make-up bolsters one's self confidence and gives one that psychological edge so necessary
in today's competitive society, that's why it should be done correctly
Notably in 1583, Philip Stubbes vehemently supported the cause that use of make-up would
result in hellfire and damnation to those who dared to defile God's handiwork with
artificial colour. He stated that "Women who used 'certain ogles, liquors, unguents
and waters' and flaunted God's will by 'colouring their faces with such sibbersauces' in a
vain attempt to improve their beauty, would have their souls deformed and be brought
deeper into the displeasure and indignation of the Almighty, at whose voice the earth doth
tremble and at whose presence the heavens shall liquify and melt away'."
Four hundred years later, American women were spending half a billion dollars a year on
Renaissance Period 1400 - 1600AD
- The time of Michelangelo - art was highly valued.
- 1548 Firenzuola an Italian monk published Dialogo Delle Bellezze Delle Conne
(Dialogue on The Beauty of Women) which gives the ideal picture of the Renaissance woman,
"Cheeks should be fair, have a glow like ivory...bosom must be white...forehead
must be spacious (pumiced), wide, high, fair and serene...ebony eyebrows of soft, short,
hairs...dark tan or nut brown eyes...lashes thin, not over long and not white...socket
surrounding the eyes not too deep or large, nor different in colour from cheek".
- Firenzuola however, relied on God to provide beauty and considered
artificial aids an abomination.
- Despite the church, the Renaissance brought with it a revival in personal
- The widespread use of lead and mercury on skin, precipitated tooth decay. To
hide this, the teeth were stained.
- Make-up more permissible under Elizabeth 1.
- Red hair (not her own), white face (lead).
- Red ochre and mercuric sulphide used for rouge.
- Cochineal with gum arabic or egg white for lips.
- Various concoctions used for skin.
- Upper classes used cosmetics routinely, eyebrows thin, high pumiced
forehead, henna used at court, dress elaborate, real jewellery and earrings both sexes.
- Shipping (Raleigh, Drake, etc.) resulted in trade and an abundance of lace,
brocade, velvet, silks, spices, and the real start of cosmetics industry.
- In Paris, even nuns were seen on streets painted, powdered and rouged.
- End of 16th century saw the beginning of a new era in patching,to hide the
- Hair dye formula: 1602 - "One part lead calcined with sulphur, one part
quick lime, thin with water. Lay on hair chafing it well in, let dry fifteen minutes and
rinse (chestnut brown).
- Perfumed soaps in use (France) moralists objected - "The Sinne of
- Men occasionally used make-up, with criticism.
Early Seventeenth Century 1603 - 1625
- Use of make-up more discreet during reign of James 1.
- Still used by aristocracy and colour classes enough to be openly discussed.
- Moralists and clerics becoming heavy handed in approach to criticism.
- Pale make-up base called ceruse - white or pink.
- Enamelled faces had a sheen, applied thickly to conceal wrinkles.
- Men's make-up considered effeminate - cheek rouge, pink or flesh powder, lip
- Thomas Tuke (1616) minister at St. Giles in the Fields wrote a treatise
against "Painted Women".
- Patches popular.
Note: Patches were initially used to hide the facial sores from syphilis, however during
the restoration they became popularised and were worn on specific sides of the face to
denote affection to a particular political party.
Mid Seventeenth Century 1625-1659
- Italy - liquid arsenic 'Aqua Toffana', also 'Aquetta Di Napoli', used to
poison husbands - kept with cosmetics.
- Painting and patches continued.
- Theatrical make-up strong and obvious.
Puritan 1650 - 1660
- England and America.
- Opposite attitude towards use of makeup to the time of Elizabeth 1st.
- No beards, moustaches, sideburns, close cropped hair - roundheads - make-up
evil cf. cavaliers with long hair.
- Fashion dictated by the court, Court wigs - white in France, red, brown or
black in England.
- White pale faces - eyebrows pumiced out then pencilled in - dark
- Use of patches - 1) Political - Whig R - Tory L. 2)Pure Decoration 3) Pox
- Country people - rustic complexion - girls - natural, ladies - Spanish
papers - dye for cheeks & lips, wool, (also Chinese boxes, cheeks, eyebrow, pearl for
face & neck).
- Pumiced their hair out - high forehead - created nfection , powders - lodnum
(lead), demarcation - patches, pox, rouge.
- Powder started 1703 - grey pink colour popular.
- Facial hair in military or commoners only.
- Gowns elaborate, silk stockings, gold lame (real).
- Patches - passlonee - eye.
- La Baiseuse - mouth.
- Gallant - cheek.
- Made of black taffeta, gummed paper or leather.
- Plumpers - Camphor or wax for cheeks.
WIGS - Louis X1V and X111
- Dark in England, white in France.
- Oliver Cromwell - Lord Protector.
- Puritanism - roundheads.
- High forehead (pumice).
- Day - white (lead, KW1 or ivory cream stick).
- Evening - lavender.
- Down to neck, cupid bow mouth.
- Teardrop jewellery in.
- Black eyebrows (Kohl) 2 styles, drawn or real.
- Eyes, grey, rust - not subtle.
- Stage - lashes. Eyelids grey or brown.
- Film - individual lashes or coats of mascara.
- Rouge important - lower down on face and formulas - Aristocrat - pink,
commoner - browner.
- Liner - film, no; theatre, yes. (Makeup artists note)
- Sideburns and moustache not in.
- No eye shadow on male, full black eyebrows, some blush, rouge mouth.
- Men wearing make-up openly by time of Charles 11, time of Marie Antoinette,
Pompadou, Byron, Charles 11.
- 1680 - 1710 men wore cosmetics openly, Judge Jeffreys Clark, Justice of the
Kings Bench and Lord Chancellor, notoriously brutal, especially during the bloody assizes,
used cosmetics to a great extent. Portrait in London gallery.
- By 1690, the fashionable face became more oval and longer with hair moving
Early Eighteenth Century 1700 - 1737
- Voluptuous look of seventeenth century has given way to that of painted
porcelain, lasting until the French Revolution.
- Patching still continued.
Mid Eighteenth Century 1737-1770
- Clergy weary of ranting against cosmetics.
- High ranking women flaunted fashion.
- Madame De Pompadour's final act was to rouge her cheeks after the last
rites, then she died.
- Many men rouged - not as heavily as women.
- 1768 English Dandies painted cheeks and lips, blackened eyebrows, and
Late Eighteenth Century 1770 - 1800
Includes revolutionary period (1789 - 1795). English Parliament passed law
stating: "All women of whatever age, rank, profession or degree, whether virgins,
maids, or widows, that shall from and after this act impose upon, seduce, or betray into
matrimony any of His Majesty's subjects by the use of scents, paints, cosmetics, washes,
artificial teeth, false hair, Spanish wool, iron stays, hoops, high heeled shoes, or
bolstered hips, shall incur the penalty of the law now in force against witchcraft and
like misdemeanours, and that the marriage upon conviction shall stand null and void".
The ladies, needless to say, continued to paint! Slim lined clothes in. Bustles gone, slim
dresses, low necklines, small sleeves, beaded. Sideburns for men, wigs no longer popular.
Elaborate make-up. Men's clothes lively compared to women.
Early Nineteenth Century (1800 - 1837
- Pendulum swing away from obvious artificial make-up of eighteenth century to
subtle, natural, deceptive make-up or none at all.
- Cheek pinching and lip biting 'IN'.
- Cosmetics going out of fashion meant going underground.
- After 1828, Guerlain supplied lip pomades for both men and women.
- First glimpse of beauty as known today was probably Dona Isabel Cobosde
Porcel, portrait by Goya, circa 1806.
- Geisha - traditional make-up like Kabuki & Ho.
- Not changed for centuries
- Mask like layer of pink or white (Tokyo - pink first with white brushed
over) blended to give smooth porcelain-like finish.
- Rouge brushed delicately onto cheeks, eyelids and sides of nose with soft
- White rice powder applied with cotton puff.
- - Wispy sideburns lightly pencilled on and eyebrows painted with red then
black allowing only a trace of red to show, eyes lined with red then black in the same way
(finely pointed brush).
- Lips - bright vermilion keeping mouth relatively small.
- Traditional black wig.
- Empress Josephine set fashion for women in Europe.
Early Victorian 1837 - 1860
- Shift from permissive to deceptive.
- Natural beauty.
- Spanish Wool, paper and chinese boxes still used.
- "Unsavoury Ladies" and those of the theatre still used rouge.
- USA cosmetics use increased.
- Lola Montez (1818 - 1861) - most celebrated beauty of all time, adventuress
- self styled Spanish, actually Irish, was also mistress of Liszt and Louis 1 of Bavaria.
- Hissed off stage in London.
- Reduced to poverty in Brussels.
- Single handedly faced (and conquered) a mob in Warsaw.
- Almost fomented a revolution.
- Became the power behind the throne in Bavaria, was one of the most
celebrated women in Europe.
- Book of beauty hints published in her name in 1858, melange of prudery,
common sense, conventional recipes, and advice from other books. Basically against
'patent' cosmetics - more natural products. Three years later she died of paralysis,
possibly brought on by the use of cosmetics?
- Corsetry, whalebones, constricting girdles popular.
- Leg o'mutton, or straight sideburns for men, beards, moustaches, whiskers
considered an important addition to the face, shaving considered misguided.
- Hair long or short, but must be clean.
Mid Victorian 1860 - 1880
- Powdered wig revived.
- Other cosmetic use increasing.
- Resistance though would persist to next century.
- Women discreet and secretive.
- Enamelling 'in' - alabaster face.
- Ladies shaving began to be popular.
- Cosmetics commonly on sale - fortunes made.
- Vein colouring (blue) common.
- Care of eyebrows more apparent.
Late Victorian 1880 - 1900
- Still division of use of cosmetics.
- Great pretence still used by many.
- Skin care and exercise noted.
- Rouge - dubious respectability, used but fact not advertised.
- Carefully plucked eyebrows.
Twentieth Century 1900 - 1910 Inc. Demi Monde (1890 - 1910)
- Return to completely free and open make-up.
- Even wildly excessive accepted.
- Overall look - hair/make-up/dress.
- Bookish, educated, debating clubs.
- Men poetic, (long hair).
- Costumed photography the rage.
- Vogue 1903 reporting on cosmetics, hints on rouging, make-up advertising
becoming common. (Vogue)
- Nail polish new in 1907. Twentieth Century 1910 - 1920
- 'Grecian' products sold by Mrs. Elizabeth Hubbard, 5th Avenue Store.
- Took Florence Nightingale Graham (CANADIAN) into firm, energetic and
- Stormy partnership - Mrs. Graham borrowed $6,000.00 from a cousin, chose the
name Elizabeth Arden. Paid back loan in four months - refused fifteen million for her
company in 1929.
- Beauty parlours common.
- 1911 - cosmetics for motoring introduced.
- 1913, full rosebud lips, dark brows, light skin fashionable.
- No government control on substances used in beauty products until 1912.
- 1915, fifty million dollars worth of cosmetics sold in USA.
- Helena Rubinstein products and services go international.
- Yardley (origins traced to 1770) opened New York branch in 1921.
- 1923 Kurlash invented eyelash curler, took 10 minutes, cost $5.00,
successful new version 1950's did job in 30 seconds.
- Advertising for cosmetics, creams, toners, skin treatments, etc., more and
- After World War 1 with soldiers requiring surgical facial repairs, plastic
surgery born and recommended openly to English women to reduce aging signs. "The
Hystogen Institute - Baker St." popular.
- Sales of cosmetics in USA $750 million/year.
- 1928 Kleenex released for cleansing.
- Coco Chanel freed woman, victorian corsets gone, loose chemise was
flattering on slim woman, binding common, breasts not fashionable, knees rouged, bands,
hair bobs, "Polished Cheeks", "Beestung" lips, vamp look, short
Twentieth Century 1930 - 1940
- Organization of professional groups -
- (1) National Hairdressers & Cosmetologists Association, (2) National
Association of Cosmeticians & Hair Artists - aims, principals, standards.
- Conventions and trade shows, contests, free lessons, techniques, etc.
- Helena Rubinstein began in 1902 by beautifying the Australian woman. (Home
made polish face cream) self styled "Worlds Greatest Beauty Culturist".
- Appeared in USA in 1915 with $500 million.
- Decadent period - smoked, drank champagne.
- Ostrich feathers, pearls, hoop earrings.
- "Flappers" - pencilled eyebrows, heavy mascara.
- Men in pinstripes, cravats, ornate buttons - work, hats, wide ties.
- Speak Easy's - cinema influenced England's fashion industry.
- "Gibson Girl" - English, influenced by Coco.
- 1930's vaselined eye for cinematography.
- Vogue & Harpers 1931 - more natural look.
- Opalescent fingernails occasionally seen in Paris, Platinum tips to French
- Rubinstein and Arden produce cosmetics to co-ordinate with clothing.
- 1933 - cosmetics advertised on radio.
- By mid thirties, mounted new products without extensive testing.
Twentieth Century 1940 - 1960
- 1940 Food Drug and Cosmetic Act (USA).
- Leg make-up an alternative to the war time stocking problem.
- Winter 1949 - 1950, Paris revolution in eye make-up, the
"Doe-Eyed" look, up to then, shadow, mascara, eyelining aggressive.
- New trend was towards lighter skin, darker lips, no rouge. Eye make-up in
- Sales in eye make-up rose dramatically.
- Revlon (owned by three Revsons and a Lachman) started in 1932 in a back room
on West 45th St. Initial outlay $300, nail enamel.
- Annual $68,000 3 years later, annual $25 million by 1952.
- Hollywood - Ingrid Bergman with natural look, Harlow - hair, Crawford -
mouth, diet rich, eyebrows things of the past.
- 1954 Max Factor - Polish emigrant wig maker, - Powders and greasepaint for
movies, - Began to use off set, - Pan-cake one of most successful lines.
- 1955 Royal Jelly 'in'.
- 1956 Aerosol sprays invented.
- Late fifties, bigger, brighter, wide open eyes.
- Guanine added to mat shadow to give shimmering lustre.
Twentieth Century 1960 -1972
- 1961 natural look back again!
- Brown lipstick replaced by pink and gold tones.
- Plastic shapers for lips and eyebrows - unsteady hand.
- Antony and Cleopatra movie brought back Egyptian look. 1963, rouge now
- *1964 sculptured look under way, created illusion of highlights and shadows.
- Counterpoint colouring - pink-based make-up and orange sweater, tawny- base
make-up and fragile pink dress.
- Colours come across more strongly in contrast.
- Faberge - gold lipstick.
- Blusher used all over face.
The Exotic Look 1964T
- *Pablo - Elizabeth Arden make-up artist - eyes are the only part worth
making up, shadowed crease between lid and eye socket. Highlight lid and bone under brow.
Swept up at corners.
- The big fade (Time Magazine) 1965.
- Lips began to disappear in 1961, then cheek colour, now eyebrows, bleached,
colour by bangs, etc., idea to focus attention on eyes.
- Lids highlighted, eyes heavily lined, double or triple eyelashes worn. The
fact that a dark shadow over the eye and long pencilled eyebrows helped enlarge and
beautify the eye was lost.
- Yardley - the London Look.
- Mary Quant (Queen of the Mods) brought out her own cosmetics line.
Contour Makeup 1967
- Took cue from stage make-up, emphasis on modelling the face with highlight
and shadow to give illusion of bone structure. Applied by professional make-up artists,
the result was glamorous. Do-it-yourself street jobs not always successful.
- Miniskirts in - leg make-up.
- Glitter and glint 'IN', clothes and make-up.
- Lipsticks in precious metal tones, especially gold.
- The Polished Look - Fall, 1967.
- Moist - just born.
- Almost every manufacturer came up with glisteners and gleaners in their
foundations. In short, the sixties were a time of make-up change and revolution, firmly
establishing once and for all the various uses of make-up, and styles from spring to
winter. The manufacturers loved it and made lots of money! The trend continues to this day
to the tune of seven billion dollars a year.
- Spring 1969, the Raccoon Look - surrounding the entire eye with shadow.
- High fashion models veered towards the bizarre.
- Face lifts, eyelid lifts, nose jobs, dermabrasion, hair plug grafts, all
became popular, combatting the effects of age.
- Permissiveness in make-up hit a peak, coloured faces and hair, rainbows
across face, streaks in hair. Striped feet, different coloured nails etc.
- Revlon - Frosted lipsticks, 17 shades.
- Face painting in.
- Wild extravagance of 1970 subsided by 1971.
- Awareness of nature, the environment and the individual.
- Women re-discovered what their mothers, grandmothers had believed, that
beauty comes from within, as well as without.
- Natural product make-up became available, wheat germ, avocado, almonds,
dates, sesame etc.
- Scientific evidence that skin was made more healthy with these products.
- The make-up companies however, continued to churn out an extravagance of
- Mary Quant - Swiss made crayons.
- Biba - purple nail polish, mahogany lipstick, yellow foundation, black face
- Subdued make-up, back to a more liveable trend, but permissiveness still
exists to this day for the person wishing to personalize their make-up.
- Garishness of make-up fads and fashions.
- Beauty out, excitement in.
- "Excitement is movement, noise, turbulence and today".
- "An exciting woman is no classic beauty with the perfect set of
features, but they add up to something fresh and provocative".
- Late 1980's trend towards more "Earth Tones", further discovery of
natural products, "Rainforest", etc.
- Early trend, "Back to the Sixties and Seventies".
What do I need in a Makeup Kit? (Professional)
- Hair bands and clips
- Brushes, chisel and pointed
- Bases: light and dark
- Lipsticks: True Red, Coral, Cool, Warm, Dark etc., (at least 12)
- Coverall Kit: camouflage bases, i.e. Covergirl Erasebase
- . Mascara: Black, Brown, Disposable wands
- Sponges: Polyurethane Foam and Latex Stipple
- Pressed and Loose Powders
- Pencils: Grey, Black, Brown and Pencil Sharpener
- Brow/Mascara Comb
- Countershades - Shadows
- Scissors - Small
- False Lashes and Adhesive
- Cold Cream
- Brush Cleaner
- Small Mirror
- Small Glass Container
- Cotton Wool
- Spirit Gum & Remover
- Beard Cover
- Styptic Pen
What Kind of Brushes?
- Fine Eyeliner: sable point
- Eyeliner: sable point
- Eye shadow: Ponyhair, Does Foot
- Large & Small Shading Brushes: Ponyhair, Fan/Taper
- Fluff Brush: Goat Hair
- Sponge Applicator
- Disposable sponge tip applicators
- Eyebrow/lash Brush
- Nylon Tapered Eyebrow Brush
- Lip Brush: Sable
- Contour Brush: Goat Hair 1/2"
- Blusher: Goat Hair 1"
- Powder Brush
- Artists Brushes for Make-Up: Watercolour: 1 - 12, 16, 18, 20, rounds 00
short, or long #'s 1 - 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20.
Learn to Apply Makeup Correctly
This is an introductory course for those individuals considering improving their own
personal skills or considering a career in Make-up Artistry or Photography.The methods
outlined are ideal for anyone, professional woman to drag queen.
Topics include a basic orientation, facial anatomy, skin structure and care, introduction
to foundations, contouring and corrective make-up, eyebrow and lip shading, eye make-up,
(day, evening, bridal, runway, glamour), elementary lighting, colour and its importance,
make-up for colour and black and white photography.
TYPES OF BASES
- Pancake - Max Factor (Pancakes and Pansticks do not give good coverage.)
- Impregnated Pads
- Grease Paint (Theatre) RMGP - Rubber Mask Grease Paint for use with latex
- BEN NYE - Professional Use - Stage, Film, Video.
- VISIORA - Christian Dior's professional line.
- MAC - (Make-up Art Cosmetics) also have professional line for film.
- RCMA - (Research Council of Make-up Artists) Professional Make-up.
Apply with a sponge in a twisting motion, never straight lines. Cover
forehead to hairline down to chin. Depending on the situation, the neck and shoulders must
also be covered. Always quickly buff the ears and sometimes the back of the hands. Never
use your fingers to spread makeup. Use a base closest to skin tone on face.
ALWAYS LIGHTLY POWDER AFTER USING A BASE.
Powder: Acts as photo filter Minimizes imperfections, Blends harsh edges,
Gives overall soft velvet look, Adds no colour - no change to existing colour, Removes
shine, leaves sheen and Sets make-up.
Translucent - Imparts no colour change. Rice Powder - Pale look. Durham
Corn Starch - can be used as powder - no iridescent properties. Baby Powder. Pressed
Powder - Handy for film use.
The tendency today is towards a neutral, less made-up look.
Consists of epidermis, dermis, subcutaneous tissue and auxiliary organs
(sebaceous glands, sweat glands, glands, blood vessels, hair follicles and nerves).
Epidermis or 'hard' layer constantly being replaced. Secretes a natural oil
(sebum) and moisture to keep outer surface supple and comfortable. Water is the main
component in delicate balance with natural oils.
- NORMAL Smooth, moist, fine pores, non oily. Delicate balance between dry and
oily. Needs care to prevent becoming dry or oily.
- DRY Wrinkle prone, lines faster, sometimes chaps, ages faster than oily
- OILY Large pores, sheen, does not wrinkle or show age as fast as normal or
dry skin. Should use a good water base foundation.
THE HOW AND WHY OF SKIN CARE PRODUCTS
- Remove make-up
- Removes oil, perspiration and debris
- Removes cellular build up
- Cleans without drying
- Refreshes the skin
- Leaves the skin feeling soft and smooth
APPLICATION OF CLEANSING CREAM
- Remove cleanser from jar with a spatula
- Smooth over fingers, apply in upward, outward strokes, massage in lightl
- Tissue off and repeat the process twice for thorough cleansing
- Apply freshener
APPLICATION OF CLEANSING MILKS
- Apply with fingers using upward movements or with dampened cotton using
- Apply cleanser to neck with upward strokes
- Rinse with water after application or tissue off
- Apply freshener
APPLICATION OF CLEANSING GRAINS AND SCRUBS
- Apply to clean, dampened skin
- Use gentle circular movements avoiding eye area and broken capillaries
- Rinse off with tepid water
TONERS, FRESHENERS AND ASTRINGENTS
(Since manufacturers have used these as inter-changeable terms, read
- Refreshing effect
- Removes traces of cleansing products
- Restores the acid balance of the skin
- Astringents for oily skins remove excess oils and minimize the pores
- Toners for sensitive skin are soothing
- Toners for sagging skin are tightening
- Apply after cleansing creams or milks
- Apply with dry or dampened cotton or sponge
- Follow with moisturizer
- Protects against the elements
- Moisturizes the skin
- Minimizes fine lines
- Leaves a smooth surface upon which to apply make-up
APPLICATION OF MOISTURIZERS
- Apply after cleansing and toning
- Apply while face is still damp from the toner/astringent/freshener
- Apply five dots to the face (one for the forehead, nose, each cheek and
chin) and blend
- Apply three dots to the throat area and blend
CORRECTIVE MAKEUP AND CONTOURING
Not many people are born with 'ideal bone structure', some also have far
from ideal skin. Both can be created through the illusion of light and shadow to give the
'sculptured look'. The latter is influenced by:
- the source of light,
- the colour of light,
- how it falls on the face,
- the skeletal structure of the subject,
- the shape of the face.
- popularised for street use in 1967,
- took cue from stage make-up,
- emphasis on re-modelling the face with highlights and shadow to give the
ILLUSION of a more interesting bone structure than that actually possessed by an
- tones down that which you have too much of,
- emphasizes that which you need more of,
- sculpt to give chiselled cheekbones,
NOTE: NO RACING STRIPES - BLEND, BLEND, BLEND!!!
The ideal face shape is OVAL. When contouring, do not forget to look at
your subject's facial structure and correct to create an oval face.
Create a Face: THE PROCEDURE
STEP #1. DAMAGE CONTROL
- Look for minor imperfections and correct.
- Broken veins: Mellow Yellow (Ben Nye),
- Pimples, spots etc. - Coverall Kit (Ben Nye SK-1),
- Usual to use a lighter shade followed by darker, then blend - needs
STEP #2. COUNTERSHADING (Opposite to shading)
Using a base one to two shades lighter than the skin (Base) tone, apply
carefully using a brush to:
- Centre of forehead,
- Above the centre of eyebrows, outwards,
- Under the eyes,
- Side of the eyes, pulling outwards at 45 degrees,
- Naso-labial folds (lines from side of nose to corners of mouth),
- Chin (if necessary),
Base the areas lightly, blend with a sponge, powder lightly using puff.
Use a base one to two shades darker than skin (base) tone. Apply using a
- Side of Temporal Bone,
- Under Zygomatic Arch,
- Under Mandible,
Blend and powder lightly with puff. Can also be effective in eye sockets,
sides of nose, bottom lip. Straight make-up should present a natural, clean healthy glow.
With pink of ruddy skin, avoid bases containing red. Instead, use cool undertones (Tantone
- Ben Nye).
STEP #4. HIGHLIGHTING
Usual areas, use base a shade or two lighter than base for skin:
- Bridge of nose,
- - Cheekbones,
- Under eyes,
- Below eyebrows,
- Outer edge of lower lip (makes them appear pouty),
Blend thoroughly so no demarcation line is seen.
LIGHTER COLOURS REFLECT LIGHT MORE AND THEREBY INCREASE THE PROMINENCE OF AN AREA.
CONVERSELY, AN ILLUSION OF DEPTH AND DEFINITION IS CREATED WHEN A COLOUR TWO SHADES DARKER
IS APPLIED OVER THE BASE SHADE.
DARK SHADES ABSORB MORE LIGHT AND TEND TO MINIMIZE THE AREA.
Preferably, shadows for corrective make-up should be done in warm brown with a cast of red
or orange. Apply to area smaller than required to allow for blending which will spread the
colour out a bit.
MAKE-UP APPLICATION TO A CLIENT
- Questions: Are you wearing contact lenses? - Please remove. Are you wearing
foundation? - Please remove.
- Cape the subject.
- Do skin analysis and correct.
- Countershading and blending.
- Apply base* and powder. *(foundation)
- Contouring and highlighting and light powder.
- Eyes - shadow, liner, mascara, and eyebrows.
BEN NYE BASES
These bases are good to have for general use:
- P1 WHITE
- N2 FAIR
- N3 SUBTLE BEIGE
- N4 DEEP OLIVE
- FT5 BRONZE BEIGE
- FT2 SUBTLE TAN
- M1 LITE BRONZE
- M2 SUNTONE
- T2 BRONZE TAN
- FT9 OLIVE AMBRE
- Y5 OLIVE TAN
- FT11 OLIVE SABLE
- FT13 GOLDEN EBONY
- BLACK HIGHLIGHT
- CH0 ULTRALIGHT
- CH4 MEDIUM
- CS1 SUBTLE BROWN
- CS2 MEDIUM BROWN
PALE CAUCASIAN FEMALE NI / FT4 / N3 PALE CAUCASIAN MALE FT1 / FT2 / M1
DARK CAUCASIAN FEMALE N4 / FT5 / T1 DARK CAUCASIAN MALE M2 / Y3 / T2
BLACK MALE & FEMALE FT9 / FT11 / FT13
ASIAN FEMALE P11 / TW20 / TW22 ASIAN MALE P12 / P7
LATIN FEMALE TW22 / TW24 / P6 LATIN MALE Y1 / Y5
MEXICAN FEMALE P7 MEXICAN MALE Y3
AMERICAN INDIAN FEMALE TW27 AMERICAN INDIAN MALE TW29
Eyebrows make or break a face. They act as a frame for the eye and must
complement and emphasize shape and proportion. Undercurve should follow the lash line of
- Slant tip tweezers are best for plucking stray hairs.
- Eyebrows begin at the corner of the eye than fade away on the other side of
- Eyebrows should be 1-1/2 shades lighter than the hair.
- Silverized Beige is a good pencil for general use. Beige Blonde is also
- Brush upwards and outwards when grooming. Soap is good to hold the hairs in
place, Styling Gel can be used also.
PENCILS: Use waxy narrow leads, must be sharp to be effective.
POWDER: Apply with a slant edge brush. Both should be applied in short feathery strokes.
Colours look darker on the brow, so select a shade lighter than natural colour.
ALWAYS ENQUIRE IF YOUR SUBJECT IS WEARING CONTACT LENSES. IF SO, ASK
HIM/HER TO REMOVE THEM.
The aim of eye make-up is to enhance the subject's own eye colour.
NOTE: Greens and Blues conquer, they do not enhance. Also look terrible on Film and
Television. Instead, use soft blends of Tan, Brown, Beige and Grey, i.e. Earth Tones.
If unsure of what colour to use,go for Earthtones.
Frame the Eye using:
- Temporal bone,
- Zygomatic Arch,
- Colour on the side of the nose,
- The eyebrow.
Face shape is irrelevant to eye make-up.
- Cover entire area from upper lash to eyebrow in light application of a
- Place darker colour on the eyelid as far as the crease. (This does not apply
to the oriental eye.)
- Blend carefully at the interface of the colours.
- Place eyeliner on bottom lashes 1/4" (inch) from inside corner of the
eye to the outer edge of the eye, smudge and blend as necessary.
- Mascara top lashes only. On top and bottom lashes, use eyelash comb to
separate lashes, apply a second coat to the top lashes.
- Eyelash curlers not recommended for routine use since they cause breakage of
- On bottom lashes, dot with an appropriately coloured pencil between existing
lashes to add volume. This method prevents mascara flaking onto the cheeks, (easily picked
up by the camera).
- Brush and pencil the eyebrows to suit.
- Highlight may be added to the occipital bone area for effect. EYELINERS Used
to define the eye outline. Black is only for those with dark hair and skin, otherwise dark
brown is deep enough. For fair skins, soft browns, taupe, or grey can give dramatic
effects. Eyeliner looks better when smudged a little to blend in with lashes and shadow.
Wands: Contain a creamy fluid and built in brush. Liquids: Oil based in water, difficult
to control, use a fine sable brush. Cakes: One of the best ways to draw eye lines, dampen
powder and use a fine brush.
Extremely effective and sometimes more natural looking than layers of
mascara. Use on upper lids only.
A full strip: Cut to desired length. If new, soak three to four minutes in warm water to
remove sizing that makes them stiff.
- Flex base to shape it to contour of eye.
- Dip a wooden toothpick in glue and trail a streak of glue along the lash
strip. Let it get a little gummy.
- Hold lash as close as possible to natural lash line; using toothpick, press
lashes downward in gentle vertical strokes until both lash lines meet.
- If necessary, draw a thin eyeliner to fill in any gaps and cover excess
glue. A little mascara over the real and extra lashes blends them together.
- Remove by peeling off gently beginning at the outside corner. Pick off the
adhesive. Lashes can be washed in clear warm water or special liquid(Methanol). To dry,
roll in a tissue around a pencil. .
Strip section: Cut off desired length from full strip. Apply and remove as for full strip.
Lash by Lash: Patience is required. They are not attached to the skin, but to the real
lashes themselves. The idea is to double the thickness of natural lashes, not their
- From a strip, select lashes. Start from the inside. With tweezers, dip lash
in glue and using the hair base like a brush, stroke adhesive all the way down your own
lash. Then press false lash base against natural lash base; hold a second.
- Lashes may last a week, but don't use oily eye make-up remover.
- Mascara is not necessary or advised as it cannot be cleaned off without
taking the lashes with it. To remove, apply an oily make-up remover. NOTE: Not for street
- Single application of several lashes (false) between the real lashes gives
the best effect.
- If a strip is used, feather the lashes to suit the subject's eye.
TIPS TO REMEMBER WHEN APPLYING EYE MAKE-UP
- Light shades highlight (advance). Dark shades contour (recede). Bright
shades add colour.
Deep-set eyes can be brought out with light eye shadow, protruding eyes can be
de-emphasized by the use of dark shades to give a softening effect. Wide-set eyes - to
balance the face, apply an eye shadow at the inner corner of the eye and sweep out towards
the end of the brows. Close-set eyes - separate by using colour at the far ends. Apply
colour on the lid starting at a point away from the inner corner of the eyes, extend and
point away from the inner corner, deepening the colour in a winged effect outwards.
No matter what you are faced with, best results are always achieved by using a combination
of light and dark tones.
When working on a subject, look at what they are wearing, look at their eye colour, shape
of eyes etc., also be aware of the time period the subject will be involved in, so that
you can do the make-up to suit.
Is the subject a bride, haute couture model, fashion model, everyday girl? Whatever,
always keep your wits about you and think!!
The ideal lips are presented as rosy, moist, soft and definite in shape and
colour. Fashion changes dictate lip colours, shades and sheens. Compare the lips of the
flappers of the 1920's to the Flower Children of the 1960's and today's Super models.
If possible, use a pencil the same colour as the lipstick that you are going to use. If
not possible, a neutral reddish brown is good for general use.
Place two dots at mid point of each nostril on top lip. Continue down vertically to make
two more dots on the bottom of the lower lip. Place a dot dead centre but lower than the
two dots on the upper lip, and a dot at each outside corner of the mouth but ever so
slightly above the real exact corner. Connect the dots on the upper lip with straight
lines and a nice curve across the bottom. It is easier to work from the centre outwards on
either side of lower lip. Outlining lips takes practice.
Fill in using a lip brush. NEVER USE DIRECT CONTACT WITH CLIENT AND LIPSTICK. Always use a
lip brush which can be cleaned. Choose lip colours that co- ordinate with skin tones and
Making lip corrections has to be done carefully. Alterations can be very obvious,
especially when the lipstick wears off. Do not attempt to reshape the whole mouth.
- Too Big: Outline just inside the natural line using light shade. Fill in
with darker but still light tone.
- Too Full: Avoid bright shiny heavy colours. Keep lipstick inside natural lip
line, outline in matching shade. Use lots of eye glamour to focus attention away from
- Too Thin: Outline in light shade just outside natural lip line, stopping
short of corners. Fill in with deeper tone.
NOTE: For staying power, use foundation and powder on lips before defining
THE TEMPERATURE OF LIGHT
Different light sources have different colour temperatures. The sun has a
temperature of 5800 degrees Kelvin, most colour films are balanced to give true renderings
of colour at this temperature. This outdoor light is considered to be white light.
Tungsten light, normal indoor light bulbs, have a colour temperature of 3400 degrees
Kelvin, a much warmer light in the yellow/orange range. Special films can be purchased to
correct for the temperature differences of the lighting so that colours appear correct.
Everyone will have taken photographs indoors "when the flash doesn't go off" and
not only are they dark, but also have a strange orange cast to them. Skin tones
Electronic flash or "strobes" as they are better known are balanced at 5800
degrees Kelvin so the indoor photograph appears to have normal skin tones. The indoor
lighting is overpowered by the strobe.
The temperature of light has an important effect therefore on the make-up that you use.
This is no problem when strobes are used, nor in film where Tungsten balanced film is used
for indoor shoots. However, be aware of any lighting variances that may be used, for
example coloured gels over lights or fluorescent tubes which give a green tone to daylight
film. Others to be aware of are yellow sodium street lights, or the large mercury vapour
lights used for security lighting. Sometimes a pleasant effect can be reached by use of
non- normal lighting - if a problem, always discuss with the photographer or director. In
such cases, it is doubly important to look at polaroids or a video
monitor if available to check on skin tone appearance. NOTE: The booth where the monitors
are kept is hallowed ground, so ALWAYS ask permission to enter to check on your work.
The varied use of light temperature and film colour balance can be used to create pleasing
effects. Tungsten film exposed at daylight temperatures produces an unnatural blue tone to
the photograph. Also a mix of tungsten and daylight from a window can make a nice
portrait. However, always keep an eye on how make-up looks under varied conditions.
ELEMENTARY LIGHTING TECHNIQUES
Two major lights are normally used.
- Key Light - used to strongly illuminate the subject either from the front or
- Fill Light - used to fill in shadows that are created by the Key Light and
even out the illumination of the subject.
Other lights commonly in use are Spot Lights and Back Lights, used for such
purposes as back lighting hair or profiles or in the case of back lights, which are
usually of lesser intensity, just used to illuminate the background.
Always remember that very strong lighting will tend to fade the make-up of an individual,
especially for black and white photography and television. Lighting techniques are an art
form in themselves. Visit a movie shoot and watch the lighting people at work. I think
that you will be surprised at the complexity.
MAKE-UP FOR COLOUR PHOTOGRAPHY AND FILM
Photographers will use either 35mm film in rolls of 36 or 24, or perhaps
two and a quarter square, normally in rolls of twelve.
Film is either 35mm or 16mm and runs at 24 frames per second.
Video on the other hand, runs at 30 frames per second.
If you get involved with film or video and you work on more than one day, look for
continuity in the 'rushes'. Always take polaroids of your work and use a chart.
Make-up for film and photography has to be subtle, with the foundation as close as
possible to the skin tone. Modern lenses pick up every detail in close-up work, so use a
light touch always.
For black skin, stay away from titanium dioxide containing bases. Titanium dioxide is
complementary to brown and thus turns grey. Special bases are made for brown/black skin.
For film and photography with black people, use a base (liquid usually best) several
shades lighter than their skin tone. Reason: dark colours absorb light, photography
depends upon reflection.
For bad skin, "Heal and Conceal" from Anthony Braden is an excellent product.
MAKE-UP FOR BLACK AND WHITE PHOTOGRAPHY AND TV
For females, you require a base 1-1/2 to 2 times darker than the skin. For
males, 2 to 2-1/2 times deeper. Also for males, it is sometimes necessary to eliminate or
at least reduce a very heavy beard shadow. This can be easily accomplished by using a
specially prepared beard cover (Ben Nye) available in various shades.
Keep shine to a minimum at all times - blend well.
Again, if unsure of eye make-up colour - go for earth tones, stay away from blues, greens,
and no frosted colours since they reflect light and look hideous on television and film.
Mouths should be a matt look - sometimes you may have to make a judgement call for a spot
of shine - use lip balm - but no shimmering glossy look. Use lip liner the same colour as
TIP: When preparing men for film or TV, place tissue around the collar.
If the subject has a facial problem, it can be corrected first by using a commercial
correction kit. It is also handy to have a styptic pencil in case of shaving cuts. A fan
brush is a necessity to remove excess powder and mascara flakes from the face. Christian
Dior makes an excellent Film/Television kit.
Countershading: Correction under eyes, nasolabial fold, under chin, nostril and upper lip,
blend in. Remember, this base is 2 shades lighter than face in general. To cover
demarcations, use coverall kit and blend. Contour chest if necessary. Highlight for
shadows not too far down on zygomatic arch. Finish with pressed powder.*
Eye Colour: Use all over eye colour - no frosted shades - line eye in standard manner with
darker powder. Use black eye liner for television, brown for film. Dot underneath the eye
from outside in to give illusion of lash thickness, and blend carefully. To flatten
eyebrows, use soap - flatten and dry - use strokes of pencil to fill in. Mascara only
three quarter of lash, not the roots. Comb through. Apply on the top and underneath upper
Blusher: Apply with a sponge - dot on - blend with base of sponge. Set with powder. Define
chin line and centre of neck - blend.
Lips: Do not use light lipsticks - coral shades good for film and TV. TIP: Neutral Set
Power (Ben Nye) good for film and TV.
*NOTE: Do not contour a slender face - looks skeletal.
Charts are an invaluable tool for both design of a particular make-up or
usefully, continuity during a shoot.
When drawing your own chart, note facial proportions.
1. Ears half way down sides of face, same with eyes.
2. Tip of nose half-way between eyes and chin.
3. Mouth half way between tip of nose and chin.
If possible, always include a polaroid of the subject (including scene details if
applicable). Reasonable Polaroid cameras are available for around $30.00.
STYLES OF MAKEUP
COCKTAIL HOUR (PARTY)
- Affluent Looking
- Sheer fabrics, bare shoulders, strapless
- Bright coloured cosmetics
- Golden beige blush
- Violet rimmed eyes
- Lavender eye shadow on lid, brown lashes and lower lid
- Purple/violet in crease
- Purple mascara
- Soft pink lipliner
- Warm pink lips BUSINESS LOOK
- Responsible (but attractive)
- Fast preparation in morning is desirable
- Compensate for fluorescent lighting (avoid purple, violet, bright pink)
- Use warm, golden, toasty colours of tan, beige, taupe, brown, peach,
apricot, sand, straw
- Straight, direct, uncomplicated
- Auburn eyeliner on outside
- Rim inside eyelashes with black
- Soft peach eye shadow
- Auburn lips
- Lip Gloss
- Glowing healthy appearance
- Single faint eye make-up colours
- Usually earth tones (brown)
- Imperfect! - adds to the illusion of no artificial colours
- Eye make-up several shades darker than the face
- Taupe to medium grey liner pencil
- Rosy pink cheeks, no sculpturing, no edges showing
- Mascara - Lashes tinted not coated
- Lip Balm or natural lipstick
- Rim the entire eye with eyeliner pencil, usually dark, and smudge
- Rim with violet powder eye shadow
- Tint with mascara
- Red (Ruby) lips and gloss WEDDING
- Virginal, soft, glowing, very feminine
- Pastel colours, powder blues, soft greens, pinks, pale mauves
- Light on liner and mascara
- Refer to bridal magazines for ideas
- Do not alter the bride so that the groom does not recognize her MATURE FACE
- Simplified - to suit clothing
- Bright but soft
- Sparkling eyes, no apparent liner
- Bright evenly coloured skin
- Cheeks glowing
- Colourful moist lips - not too much shine
- Gentle unstructured eyebrows
- Example of Viva Glam!
- Exclusive, privileged, sophisticated, spoiled rotten!
- Eyebrows arched
- Taupe pencil - draw line in indentation over eyeball beneath the orbital
bone. Begins near nose and extends to the outside corner of the eye near temple. Blend to
- Auburn powder over top and spread onto orbital bone
- Gold eyelids
- Icy beige or cream under eyebrow
- Rim entire eye with black pencil
- Two coats of mascara over curled lashes
- Auburn lipliner and lips
- Sweeping lines of Egyptians
- Used in 1960's
TO TEST SKIN FOR OILINESS OR DRYNESS
- Wash face thoroughly with PH balanced soap. No deodorant soaps, no other
kinds of soap. Do not apply creams or lotions. Wait three hours.
- Use one of the following: onion skin paper, facial blotting paper, eyeglass
cleansing papers or cigarette papers. Cut the paper into four 1- inch square parts.
- Mark them 1, 2, 3 and 4.
- Hold #1 on the forehead, #2 on the cheek, #3 on the nose and #4 on the chin.
Hold each in turn for a count of ten.
- Now, take a look at the papers in a good light, preferably natural lighting.
- a) Those papers that come away dry or unmarked indicate areas of dry skin.
- b) Those papers that come away with a slight oily residue indicate areas of
- c) Those papers that come away with a heavy oily residue will tell you where
your skin is very oily.
- d) If you have garden variety combination type skin, paper #2 will be dry
and papers 1, 3, and 4 will have some residue, more or less, depending on the oil level of
- e) Slight residue on all four pieces indicates normal skin. You can use this
method to determine what type of skin care you need on all parts of your face.
Analyze your skin every six months or so to determine whether you are
giving it appropriate care.
NOTE : This page still under development and is waiting for addition of graphics